Successful multimodal amphibian defense, handling and recovery costs to would-be predators

Justin Yeager

Abstract


Once a prey species is encountered by a would-be predator there are a wide variety of mechanisms individuals can employ to reduce the risk of predation. However, while specific types of defenses are well characterized, empirical evidence of the relative success of these mechanisms in nature are unfortunately relatively rare.  We present observational evidence of the successful implementation of multimodal anti-predatory defenses in a widely distributed trophical frog.  We further couple our observations with predation attempts by other predator species and compare the relative costs in terms of handling and recovery time across predation attempts.  


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