Die Hard: How Paraguayan snakes avoid predation and live to tell the tale

Hugo Cabral Beconi, Alberto Carosini, Paul Smith

Abstract


Snakes are potential prey for many carnivorous animals, including birds, mammals, spiders, lizards and other snakes.Several anti-predator strategies have been described in snakes, and the deployment of such behaviours has been associated with increased stress levels during predation events and/or environmental conditions. However the species inventory of such behaviours is far from complete, and is especially poorly documented in South American species. Here we document 5 instances of defensive behaviours by 4 species of Paraguayan snakes, Erythrolamprus sagittifer, Dipsas turgida, D. ventrimaculatus and Leptodeira annulata.

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