Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11158/saa.21.7.5

The biodiversity, density and population trend of mites (Acari) on Capsicum annuum L. in temperate and semi-arid zones of Turkey

Sultan Çobanoğlu, Nabi Alper Kumral

Abstract


This study investigated mite biodiversity and density on Capsicum annuum in temperate (Bursa and Yalova provinces) and semi-arid (Ankara province) zones of Turkey from 2009 to 2010. A total of twenty-six phytophagous, predatory and generalist mite species were established on pepper leaves. Tetranychus urticae (Tetranychidae) was the single predominant species on the plants in all zones, while Phytoseius plumifer, Neoseiulus californicus (Phytoseiidae) and Tarsonemus bifurcatus (Tarsonemidae) were found to be other common species. Mite diversity and density were higher in temperate zone provinces than in Ankara, which has semi-arid conditions. This variation was significantly correlated with high humidity in the temperate zone, but only for phytophagous mites. The highest number of predatory species was found in the temperate zone, a finding also correlated with humidity, but not significantly. Although phytophagous mite diversity was lower than that of predatory mites in both zones, phytophagous mites were more than abundant than both predatory and generalist mites. The current study observed a significantly high population density of T. urticae from late July to mid August of 2010 and 2011. The sharp decline in T. urticae density on pepper was found to be associated with the onset of rainfall in June and September. Consequently, similar population growth patterns in phytoseiids [Neoseiulus bicaudus, N. californicus and Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) recki in Bursa and Yalova; Phytoseius plumifer in Ankara] were found in all zones and in both years. Generally, predatory mite density showed a gradually increasing population growth pattern from late July to early October. 


Keywords


Spider mites, Phytoseiidae, biodiversity, phytophagous, predatory, biological control, pepper

References


Abou-Awad, B.A., El-Sawaf, B.M. & Abdel Kader, A.A. (1999) Life history and life table of Pronematus ubiquitus (Mcgregor) as a predator of eriophyoid mites in Egypt (Acari: Tydeidae). Acarologia, 40(1), 29–32.

Auger, P., Migeon, A., Ueckermann, E.A., Tiedt, L. & Navajas, M. (2013) Evidence for synonymy between Tetranychus urticae and Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Acari, Prostigmata, Tetranychidae): Review and new data. Acarologia, 53(4), 383–415.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/acarologia/20132102

Baker, E.W. (1968) The genus Pronematus Canestrini. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 61(5), 1091–1097.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aesa/61.5.1091

Bhullar M.B & Ghai, J.K. (2003) Seasonal abundance of phytophagous and predatory mites infesting brinjal in Punjab. Annals of Biology, 19(2), 231–234.

Boller, E.F. (1984) Eine einfache Ausschwemm-methode zur schellen Erfassung von Raumilben, Trips und anderen K1einarthopoden im Weinbau. Zeitschr. Obstund Weinbau, 120, 249–255.

Boom, C.E.M., Van Den Beek, T.A. & Van Dicke, M. (2003) Differences among plant species in acceptance by the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch. Journal of Applied Entomology, 127(3), 177–183.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1439–0418.2003.00726.x

Bulut, E. & Gocmen, H. (2000) Pests and their natural enemies on greenhouse vegetables in Antalya. Bulletin OILB/SROP, 23(1), 33–37.

Can, M. & Çobanoğlu, S. (2010) Studies on the determination of mite (Acari) species and their hosts of greenhouse vegetables in Kumluca, Antalya. Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi, 23(2), 87–92.

Castagnoli, M., Liguori, M. & Simoni, S. (2004) Tetranychus urticae Koch and its predator Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) on different Solanaceae (Acari Tetranychidae and Phytoseiidae). Redia, 87, 13–18.

Çakmak, I. & Çobanoğlu, S. (2006) Amblyseius californicus (McGregor, 1954) (Acari: Phytoseiidae), a new record for the Turkish fauna. Turkish Journal of Zoology, 30(1), 55–58.

Çobanoğlu, S. (1989) Türkiye'nin bazi Turuncgil bölgelerinde tespit edilen faydalı akar (Acari, Phytoseiidae) türleri. Türkiye Entomoloji Dergisi, 13(3), 163–178.

Çobanoğlu, S. & Kumral, N.A. (2014) The biodiversity and population fluctuation of plant parasitic and beneficial mite species (Acari) in tomato fields of Ankara, Bursa and Yalova provinces. Türkiye Entomoloji Dergisi, 38(2), 197–214.

Dura, O., Dura, S. & Bi̇len, E. (2012) Determination of the effective dose of Metarhizium anisopliae str. F 52 for biological control of western flower thrips on pepper plant. Bahçe, 41(1), 1–7.

Erdogan, P, Saltan, G. & Sever, B. (2010) Acaricidal effect of Capsicum annum L. extracts on two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Arachnida: Tetranychidae). Bitki Koruma Bülteni, 50(1), 35–43.

Estebanes-Gonzalez, M.L. & Rodriguez-Navarro, S. (1991) Observations on some mites of the families Tetranychidae, Eriophyidae, Acaridae and Tarsonemidae (Acari), in horticultural crops from Mexico. Folia Entomológica Mexicana, 83, 199–212.

Evans, G.O. & Browning, E. (1955) Techniques for the preparation of mites for study. Annals & Magazine of Natural History, 8, 631–635.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00222935508655675

FAO (2012) http://faostat.fao.org/

Faraji, F., Cobanoglu, S. & Cakmak, I. (2011) A checklist and a key for the Phytoseiidae species of Turkey

with two new species records (Acari: Mesostigmata). International Journal of Acarology, 37(1), 221–243.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01647954.2011.558851

Ferreira, M.A. & Sousa, S.E. (2011) Hosts and distribution of the spider mite Tetranychus evansi (Acari: Tetranychidae) in Portugal. Acta Horticulturae, 917, 133–136.

http://dx.doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2011.917.16

Flechtmann, C.H.W. & Knihinicki, D.K. (2002) New species and new record of Tetranychus Dufour from Australia, with a key to the major groups in this genus based on females (Acari: Prostigmata: Tetranychidae). Australian Journal of Entomology, 41, 118–127.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1440–6055.2002.00289.x

Gallardo, A., Vasquez, C., Morales, J. & Gallardo, J. (2005) Biology and natural enemies of Tetranychus urticae in sweet pepper. Manejo Integrado de Plagas y Agroecología, 74, 34–40.

Gencer, N.S., Coşkuncu, K.S. & Kumral, N.A. (2002) Studies on fig mites and their natural enemies on Bursa Siyahı fig in Bursa province. Türkiye Entomoloji Dergisi, 26(3), 229–239.

Gerson, U., Smiley, R.L. & Ochoa, R. (2003) Mites (Acari) for Pest Control. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK, 539 pp.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470750995

Goszczyn´ski, W., Cichocka, E. & Wojtowska, M. (1989) Pests of greenhouse pepper. Ochrona Roślin, 33(1), 8–10.

Hart, A.J., Bale, J.S., Tullett, A.G., Worland, M.R. & Walters, K.F.A. (2002) Effects of temperature on the establishment potential of the predatory mite Amblyseius californicus McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in the UK. Journal of Insect Physiology, 48(6), 593–599.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022–1910(02)00087–2

Hoy M.A. (2011) Agricultural Acarology. Introduction to Integreated Mite Management. CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group, New York, 410 pp.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1201/b10909

Jeppson, L.R., Keifer, H.H. & Baker, E.W. (1975) Mites injurious to Economic Plants. University California Press, pp: 253–283.

Kılınçer, N., Yiğit, A., Kazak, C., Er, M.K., Kurtulus, A. & Uygun, N. (2010) Biological control of pests from theory to practice. Türkiye Biyolojik Mucadele Dergisi, 1(1), 15–60.

Kolodochka, L.A. (1978) Manual for the identification of plant-inhabiting phytoseiid mites. Akademii Nauk Ukrainian SSR, Instituta Zoologii, Naukova Dumka, Kiev, Ukraine, 79 pp.

Koppert (2014) Koppert Biological systems. http://www.koppert.com/products/products–pests–diseases/products/detail/spical–1/.

Kumral, N.A. & Kovanci, B. (2005) Seasonal population dynamics of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) under acaricide constraint on eggplant in Bursa province (Turkey). Acarologia, 45(4), 295–301.

Kumral, N.A. & Cobanoglu, S. (2015) The potentials of the nightshade plants (Solanaceae) as reservoir plants for pest and predatory mites. Türkiye Entomoloji Dergisi, 39(1), 91–108.

http://dx.doi.org/10.16970/ted.55042

Kumral, N.A. & Cobanoglu, S. (2016) The Mite (Acari) biodiversity and population fluctuation of predominat species in eggplant. Journal of Agricultural Sciences, in press.

Kuznetzov, N.N. (1972) Mites of the genus Pronematus Canestrini (Acarina, Tydeidae) from Crimea. Nauc. Dokl. Vyss. Skoly, Biol. Nauki, 5, 11–16.

Magurran, A.E. (2004) Measuring Biological Diversity. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, 107 pp.

McGregor, E.A. (1950) Mites of the family Tetranychidae. American Midland Naturalist, 44, 257–420.

Meyer, M.K.P.S. (1987) African Tetranychidae (Acari: Prostigmata)- with reference to the world genera. Entomology Memoir, Department of Agriculture and Water Supply, Republic of South Africa, 69, 1–175.

Migeon, A. & Dorkeld, F. (2015) Spider Mites Web: a Comprehensive Database for the Tetranychidae. http://www.montpellier.inra.fr/CBGP/spmweb

Nawar, M.S., Zaher, M.A., El-Enany, M.A.M. & Ibrahim, A.A. (2001) Life table parameters of Phytoseius plumifer (Canestrini & Fanzago) reared at different temperatures (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research, 79(4), 1341–1352.

Nomikou, M., Janssen, A., Schraag, R. & Sabelis, M.W. (2001) Phytoseiid predators as potential biological control agents for Bemisia tabaci. Experimental & Applied Acarology, 25(4), 271–291.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1017976725685

Osman, A.A. & El-Keie, I.A. (1975) On the populations and control of mites infesting pepper in Egypt (Aca

rina-Tetranychidae). Bulletin of the Entomological Society of Egypt, Economic Series, 9, 133–136.

Panigrahi, D. (2010) Phytophagous mites associated with important vegetables in Odisha. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 18(2), 518–519.

Papadoulis, G.T., Emmanouel, N.G. & Kapaxidi, E.V. (2009) Phytoseiidae of Greece and Cyprus (Acari: Mesostigmata). Indira Publishing House, West Bloomfield, MI, USA, 200 pp.

Radonjic, S. & Hrncic, S. (2014) Tetranychid mites on vegetable crops in greenhouses in southern part of Montenegro. Biljni Lekar (Plant Doctor), 42(1), 53–58.

Sabelis, M.W. (1985) Development. In: Helle, W & Sabelis, MW (Editors), Spider Mites, Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests Vol 1B. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 43–53.

SAS. (2007) SAS Institute. JMP version 7.0.2 Release Notes Cary, NC: SAS Institute Print Center; 1–20.

Seeman, O.D. & Beard, J.J. (2011) Identification of exotic pest and Australian native and naturalised species of Tetranychus (Acari: Tetranychidae). Zootaxa, 2961, 1–72.

Siduma, A., Langa, S., Manjate, J., Mulima, E., Dava, L., Cossa, S. & Ahmed, K.Z. (2007) Biodiversity of spider mites (Tetranychus spp.) and their natural enemies in Mozambique. 8th African Crop Science Society Conference, El-Minia, Egypt, 27–31 October 2007, 1087–1089.

Şekeroğlu, E. (1984) Phytoseiid mites (Acarina, Mesostigmata) of southern Anatolia, their biology, and effectiveness as a biological control agent on strawberry plants. Doga Bilim Dergisi (Tarım ve Ormancılık), 8(3), 320–336.

TUIK (2012) Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu Web Sitesi. http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreTablo.do?alt_id=1001

Ueckermann, E.A. & Grout, T. (2007) Tydeoid mites (Acari: Tydeidae, Edbakerellidae, Iolinidae) occuring on Citrus in southern Africa. Journal of Natural History, 41(37–40), 2351–2378.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00222930701589921

Yabaş, C. & Ulubilir, A. (1995) A pest, Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) (Acarina, Tarsonemidae) on peppers in the Mediterranean Region of Turkey. Türkiye Entomoloji Dergisi, 19(1), 43–46.

Yaşarakıncı, N. & Hıncal, P. (1997) Determining the pests and beneficial species and their population densities on tomato, cucumber, pepper and lettuce greenhouses in İzmir. Bitki Koruma Bülteni, 37(1/2), 79–89.

Yu, S.J. (2008) The toxicology and biochemistry of insecticides. CRC Press, London, 276 pp.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


An international journal of the Systematic and Applied Acarology Society

ISSN 1362-1971