Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access


Phytoseiid Mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) of the Azores Islands 

Francisco Ferragut, Denise Navia


The fauna of phytoseiid mites (Phytoseiidae) is still scarcely known in the Azores archipelago. A survey was conducted in the islands of Pico, Faial and Flores where phytoseiid mites were collected from native, cultivated and invasive plants. Twenty-two species were collected, nine of which represent new records for the Azores. Five new species, Neoseiulus petraeus Ferragut sp. nov., Phytoseius azorensis Ferragut sp. nov., Typhlodromus (Typhlodromus) atlanticus Ferragut sp. nov., T. (T.) floresiensis Ferragut sp. nov. and Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) septemporosus Ferragut sp. nov., are described and illustrated. We provide complementary morphological information for four known species, additional features for the separation of Typhlodromina tropica (Chant) and T. subtropica (Muma & Denmark) and the redescription of Amblyseius elongatus (Garman). A key to separate the phytoseiid species of the Azores is also included.


Taxonomy, Phytoseiidae, Macaronesia, Atlantic Ocean, Portugal, Key


Abbasova, E.D. (1972) Phytoseiid mites (Parasitiformes: Phytoseiidae) of Azerbaijan [in Russian]. Avtoreferat Dissertatsii na Soiskanie Uchenoy Stepeni Kandidata Biologicheskikh Nauk. Akadrmiya Nauk Azerbaydzhanskoy SSR, Institut Zoologii, Baku, Azerbaijan, 34 pp.

Abo-Shnaf, R.I.A. & Moraes, G.J. de. (2014) Phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) from Egypt, with new records, descriptions of new species, and a key to species. Zootaxa, 3865, 1, 1–71.

Abou-Setta, M.M., Childers, C.C., Denmark, H.A. & Browning, H.W. (1991) Comparative morphology and reproductive compatibility between populations of Euseius mesembrinus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) from Florida and Texas. Experimental & Applied Acarology, 10, 213–220.

Asali-Fayaz, B. & Khanjani, M. (2013) Redescription of four species phytoseiid mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) associated with alfalfa farms in western Iran. Persian Journal of Acarology, 2(1), 9−24.

Athias-Henriot, C. (1959) Acariens planticoles d'Algerie. I. 5e contribution au genre Amblyseius Berlese (Phytoseiidae). II. Premiere liste d'Actinochitinosi (Cheyletidae, Caligonellidae, Hemisarcoptidae). Bulletin de l’Academy Royal de Belgique, Class des Sciences, (Ser. 5), 45, 130–153.

Athias-Henriot, C. (1960) Nouveaux Amblyseius d' Algerie (Parasitiformes, Phytoseiidae). Acarologia, 2, 288–299.

Athias-Henriot, C. (1961) Mesostigmates (Urop. excl.) edaphiques Mediterraneens (Acaromorpha, Anactinotrichida). Acarologia, 3, 381–509.

Athias-Henriot, C. (1966) Contribution a l' etude des Amblyseius palearctiques (Acariens anactinotriches, Phytoseiidae). Bulletin Scientifique de Bourgogne, 24, 181–230.

Athias-Henriot, C. (1975) Nouvelles notes sur les Amblyseiini. II. Le relevé organotaxique de la face dorsal adulte (Gamasides, Protoadéniques, Phytoseiidae). Acarologia, 27, 20–29.

Athias-Henriot, C. (1977) Nouvelles notes sur les Amblyseiini. III. Sur le genre Cydnodromus: Redefinition, composition (Parasitiformes, Phytoseiidae). Entomophaga, 22, 61–73.

Banks, N. (1905) Descriptions of some new mites. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 7, 133–142.

Banks, N. (1915) The Acarina or mites. A review of the group for the use of economic entomologists. United States Department of Agriculture Report, USA, 108, 1–153.

Barbar, Z. (2013) Survey of phytoseiid mite species (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in citrus orchards in Lattakia governorate, Syria. Acarologia, 53(3), 247–261.

Beard, J.J. (2001) A review of Australian Neoseiulus Hughes and Typhlodromips De Leon (Acari: Phytoseiidae: Amblyseiinae). Invertebrate Taxonomy, 15, 73–158.

Beglyarov, G.A. (1958) Species of Phytoseiidae (Parasititormes: Gamasoidea) predatory upon tetranychid mites in orchards of the Krasnodar region [in Russian]. Trudy Vsesoiuznogo Institut Zashchity Rastenii 10, 98–124.

Berlese, A. (1889) Acari, Myriopoda et Scorpiones hucusque in Italia reperta. Tipografia del Seminario, Padova, 6(54), 7–9.

Berlese, A. (1914) Acari nuovi. Manipulus IX. Redia, 10, 113–150.

Bhattacharyya, S.K. (1968) Two new phytoseiid mites from eastern India (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). Journal of Bombay Natural History Society, 65, 677–680.

Borges, P.A.V., Cunha, R., Gabriel, R., Martins, A.F. & Vieira, V. (2005) A list of terrestrial fauna (Mollusca and Arthropoda) and flora (Bryophyta, Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta) from the Azores. Direcçao Regional do Ambiente e Universidade dos Açores, Horta, Angra do Heroismo e Ponta Delgada, 318 pp.

Chant, D.A. (1956) Some mites of the subfamily Phytoseiinae (Acarina: Laelaptidae) from southeastern England, with descriptions of new species. The Canadian Entomologist, 88, 26–37.

Chant, D.A. (1957) Descriptions of some phytoseiid mites (Acarina, Phytoseiidae). Part I. Nine new species from British Columbia with keys to the species of British Columbia. Part II. Redescriptions of eight species described by Berlese. The Canadian Entomologist, Canada, 89(7), 289–308.

Chant, D.A. (1959) Phytoseiid mites (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). Part I. Bionomics of seven species in southeastern England. Part II. A taxonomic review of the family Phytoseiidae, with descriptions of thirty-eight new species. The Canadian Entomologist, Supplement 12, 166 pp.

Chant, D.A. (1965) The identity and distribution of species of Phytoseius Ribaga (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) in Canada. The Canadian Entomologist, 97(9), 897–909.

Chant, D.A. & McMurtry, J.A. (1994) A review of the subfamilies Phytoseiinae and Typhlodrominae (Acari: Phytoseiidae). International Journal of Acarology, 20(4), 223–310.

Chant, D.A. & McMurtry, J.A. (2003) A review of the subfamily Amblyseiinae Muma (Acari: Phytoseiidae): Part I. Neoseiulini new tribe. International Journal of Acarology, 29, 3–46.

Chant, D.A. & McMurtry, J.A. (2004) A review of the subfamily Amblyseiinae Muma (Acari: Phytoseiidae): Part III. The tribe Amblyseiini Wainstein, subtribe Amblyseiina n. subtribe. International Journal of Acarology, 30, 171–228.

Chant, D.A. & McMurtry, J.A. (2005) A review of the subfamily Amblyseiinae Muma (Acari: Phytoseiidae): Part VI. The tribe Euseiini n. tribe, subtribes Typhlodromalina n. subtribe, Euseiina n. subtribe, and Ricoseiina n. subtribe. International Journal of Acarology, 31, 187–224.

Chant, D.A. & McMurtry, J.A. (2007) Illustrated keys and diagnoses for the genera and subgenera of the Phytoseiidae of the world (Acari: Mesostigmata). Indira Publishing House, Michigan, 220 pp.

Chant, D.A. & Yoshida-Shaul, E. (1982) On the identity of Amblyseius umbraticus (Chant) (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 60(8), 1998–2005.

Chant, D.A. & Yoshida-Shaul, E. (1983) A world review of five similar species groups in the genus Typhlodromus Scheuten: Part II. The conspicuus and cornus groups (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 61, 1041–1057.

Chant, D.A. & Yoshida-Shaul, E. (1991) Adult ventral setal patterns in the family Phytoseiidae (Acari: Gamasina). International Journal of Acarology, 17, 187–199.

Chaudhri, W.M. (1968) Six new species of mites of the genus Amblyseius (Phytoseiidae) from Pakistan. Acarologia, 10, 550–562.

Chaudhri, W.M., Akbar, S. & Rasool, A. (1979) Studies on the predatory leaf inhabiting mites of Pakistan. University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, 243 pp.

Costa-Comelles, J., Soares, A.O., Vercher, R., Schanderl, H. & Ferragut, F. (1994) A contribution to data on mite fauna in the Azores Islands. Relatorios e Comunicaçoes do Departamento de Biología. Universidade dos Açores, Portugal, 22, 40–44.

Cunliffe, F. & Baker, E.W. (1953) A guide to the predatory phytoseiid mites of the United States. Pinellas Biology Laboratory, Inc., USA, 1, 28 pp.

Daneshvar, H. & Denmark, H.A. (1982) Phytoseiids of Iran (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). International Journal of Acarology, 8, 3–14.

Dean, H.A. (1957) Predators of Oligonychus pratensis (Banks) (Tetranychidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 50, 164–165.

De Leon, D. (1959) Seven new Typhlodromus from Mexico with collection notes on three other species (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). The Florida Entomologist, 42, 113–121.

De Leon, D. (1962) Twenty-three new phytoseiids, mostly from southeastern United States (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). The Florida Entomologist, 45(1), 11–27.

De Leon, D. (1965) Phytoseiid mites from Puerto Rico with descriptions of new species (Acarina: Mesostigmata). The Florida Entomologist, 48, 121–131.

Demite, P.R., Moraes, G.J. de, McMurtry, J.A., Denmark, H.A. & Castilho, R.C. (2017) Phytoseiidae Database. Available from: (last access on March 14, 2017).

Denmark, H.A. (1965) Four new Phytoseiidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) from Florida. The Florida Entomologist, 48, 89–95.

Denmark, H.A. (1966) Revision of the genus Phytoseius Ribaga, 1904 (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). Florida Department of Agriculture Bulletin, 6, 1–105.

Denmark, H.A. & Evans, G.A. (2011) Phytoseiidae of North America and Hawaii (Acari: Mesostigmata). Indira Publishing House, West Bloomfield, USA, 451 pp.

Denmark, H.A. & Muma, M.H. (1973) Phytoseiid mites of Brazil (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). Revista Brasileira de Biologia, 33, 235–276.

Denmark, H.A. & Muma, M.H. (1975) The Phytoseiidae (Acarina: Mesostigmata) of Puerto Rico. The Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico, 59, 279–304.

Denmark, H.A. & Muma, M.H. (1989) A revision of the genus Amblyseius Berlese, 1914 (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Occasional Papers of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods, USA, 4, 149 pp.

Dennmark, H.A. & Welbourn, W.C. (2002) Revision of the genera Amblydromella Muma and Anthoseius De Leon (Acari: Phytoseiidae). International Journal of Acarology, 28(4), 291–316.

Dosse, G. (1958) Uber einige neue Raubmilbenarten (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Pflanzenschutz Berichte, 21, 44–61.

Duso, C. & Fontana, P. (2002) On the identity of Phytoseius plumifer (Canestrini & Fanzago, 1876) (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Acarologia, XLII, 2, 127–136.

Edland, T. & Evans, G.O. (1998) The genus Typhlodromus (Acari: Mesostigmata) in Norway. European Journal of Entomology, 95, 275–295.

Ehara, S. (1966) Some mites associated with plants in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, with a list of plant mites of South America. Japanese Journal of Zoology, 15(2), 129–150.

Ehara, S. & Amano, H. (1998) A revision of the mite family Phytoseiidae in Japan (Acari: Gamasina), with remarks on its biology. Species Diversity, 3(1), 25–73.

El-Badry, E.A. (1968) Three new species of phytoseiid mites from western Sudan. Revue de Zoologie et Botanique Africaine, 77, 321–328.

El-Banhawy, E.M. (1975) New Amblyseius mite from Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Biologia, 35, 549–552.

El-Banhawy, E.M. (1976) A new predacious mite of the genus Typhlodromus Scheuten from Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Biologia, 36(2), 531–534.

Evans, G.O. (1952) On a new predatory mite of economic importance. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 43, 397–401.

Evans, G.O. (1988) Two new species of phytoseiid mites from southern England with a redescription of Typhlodromus tiliae. Journal of Zoology, 214, 71–79.

Faraji, F., Çobanoglu, S. & Çakmak, I. (2011) A checklist and a key for the Phytoseiidae species of Turkey with two new species records (Acari: Mesostigmata). International Journal of Acarology 37, 221–243.

Ferla, N.J. & Silva, G.L. (2009) A new species of Amblyseius Berlese (Acari, Phytoseiidae) from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, 53(4), 509–510.

Ferragut, F. & Escudero, L.A. (1997) Taxonomía y distribución de los ácaros depredadores del género Euseius Wainstein 1962, en España (Acari: Phytoseiidae) [in Spanish]. Boletin Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 23, 227–235.

Ferragut, F. & Peña-Estévez, M.A. (2003) Phytoseiid mites of the Canary Islands (Acari: Phytoseiidae): 1. Gran Canaria Island. International Journal of Acarology, 2(2), 149–170.

Ferragut, F., Pérez-Moreno, I., Iraola, V. & Escudero, L.A. (2010) Ácaros depredadores de la familia Phytoseiidae en los cultivos españoles [in Spanish]. Ediciones Agrotécnicas, Madrid. 202 pp.

Garman, P. (1958) New species belonging to the genera Amblyseius and Amblyseiopsis with keys to Amblyseius, Amblyseiopsis, and Phytoseiulus. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 51, 69–79.

Gomelauri, L.A. (1968) Three new species of mites of the family Phytoseiidae in southern Georgia [in Russian]. Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of the Georgian SSR, Zoology and Parasitology, 52(2), 515–520.

Gupta, S.K. (1981) On a collection of Phytoseiidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) from Himachal Pradesh (India), with descriptions of two new species. Indian Journal of Acarology, 5, 32–36.

Gupta, S.K. (1986) Fauna of India (Acari: Mesostigmata). Family Phytoseiidae. Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta, India, 350 pp.

Hirschmann, W. (1962) Gangystematik der Parasitiformes. Acarologie Schriftenreihe fur Vergleichende Milbenkunde, Hirschmann-Verlag, 5(5–6), 80 pp.

Karg, W. (1960) Zur Kenntnis der Typhlodromiden (Acarina: Parasitiformes) aus Ackerund Grunlandboden. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 47, 440–452.

Karg, W. (1970) Neue Arten der Raubmilbenfamilie Phytoseiidae Berlese, 1916 (Acarina: Parasitiformes). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, 17, 289–301.

Karg, W. (1971) Acari (Acarina), Milben, Unterordnung Anactinochaeta (Parasitiformes): Die freilebenden Gamasina (Gamasides), Raubmilben. Die Tierwelt Deutschlands und der angrenzenden Meeresteile, 59. Teil, VEB Gustav Fischer Verlag, 475 pp.

Karg, W. (1989) Neue Raubmilbenarten der Gattuig Proprioseiopsis Muma, 1961 (Acarina, Parasitiformes) mit Bestimmungsschlusseln. Zoologische Jahrbucher Systematik, 116(2), 199–216.

Karg, W. (1991) Die Raubmilbenarten der Phytoseiidae Berlese (Acarina) Mitteleuropas sowie angrenzender Gebiete. Zoologische Jahrbucher Systematik, 118(1), 1–64.

Kennett, C.E. (1958) Some predacious mites of the subfamilies Phytoseiinae and Aceosejinae (Acarina: Phytoseiidae, Aceosejidae) from central California with descriptions of new species. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 51, 471–479.

Koch, C.L. (1839) Deutschlands Crustaceen, Myriapoden und Arachniden. Regensburg, Germany, 5–6(25), 22; 5–6 (27), 6, 13.

Kolodochka, L.A. (1978) Manual for the identification of plant-inhabiting phytoseiid mites [in Russian]. Akademii Nauk Ukrainian SSR, Instituta Zoologii, Naukova Dumka, Kiev, Ukraine, 79 pp.

Lindquist, E.E. & Evans, G.O. (1965) Taxonomic concepts in the Ascidae, with a modified setal nomenclature for the idiosoma of the Gamasina. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada, 47, 1–64.

Lopes, P.C., McMurtry, J.A. & Moraes, G.J. de (2015). Definition of the concordis species group of the genus Euseius (Acari: Phytoseiidae), with a morphological reassessment of the species included. Zootaxa, 4048(2), 174–190.

MacGill, E. (1939) A gamasid mite (Typhlodromus thripsi n. sp.), a predator of Thrips tabaci Lind. Annals of Applied Biology, 26, 309–317.

McGregor, E.A. (1954) Two new mites in the genus Typhlodromus (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). Southern California Academy of Science Bulletin, 53, 89–92.

McMurtry, J.A. & Moraes, G.J. de (1984) Some phytoseiid mites from the South Pacific, with descriptions of new species and a definition of the Amblyseius largoensis species group. International Journal of Acarology, 10, 27–37.

Moraes, G.J. de, McMurtry, J.A. & Denmark, H.A. (1986) A catalog of the mite family Phytoseiidae. References to taxonomy, synonymy, distribution and habitat. EMBRAPA - DDT, Brasilia, Brazil, 353 pp.

Moraes, G.J. de, McMurtry, J.A., Denmark, H.A. & Campos, C.B. (2004) A revised catalog of the mite family Phytoseiidae. Zootaxa, 434, 1–494.

Muma, M.H. (1961) Subfamilies, genera, and species of Phytoseiidae (Acarina: Mesostigmata). Florida State Museum Bulletin, 5, 267–302.

Muma, M.H. & Denmark, H.A. (1968) Some generic descriptions and name changes in the family Phytoseiidae (Acarina: Mesostigmata). The Florida Entomologist, 51, 229–240.

Muma, M.H., Denmark, H.A. & De Leon, D. (1970) Phytoseiidae of Florida. Arthropods of Florida and neighboring land areas, 6. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry, Gainesville, USA, 150 pp.

Oudemans, A.C. (1930) Acarologische Aanteekeningen. CII. Entomologische Berichten, The Netherlands, 8, 69–74.

Pritchard, A.E. & Baker, E.W. (1962) Mites of the family Phytoseiidae from Central Africa, with remarks on genera of the world. Hilgardia, 33, 205–309.

Rego, C., Boieiro, M., Vieira, V. & Borges, P.A.V. (2015) The biodiversity of terrestrial arthropods in Azores. Revista IDE@-SEA, 5B, 1–24 (Accessible in

Ribaga, C. (1904) (1902) Gamasidi planticoli. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale, 10, 175–178.

Rowell, H.J., Chant, D.A. & Hansell, R.J.C. (1978) The determination of setal homologies and setal patterns on the dorsal shield in the family Phytoseiidae (Acarina: Mesostigmata). Canadian Entomologist, 110, 859–876.

Schäfer, H. (2002) Flora of the Azores. A field guide. Margraf Verlag Weikersheim, Germany, 346 pp.

Schuster, R.O. & Gonzalez, R.H. (1963) Redescription and notes on Amblyseius cucumeris (Oudemans) (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). Acarologia, 5, 185–188.

Schuster, R.O. & Pritchard, A.E. (1963) Phytoseiid mites of California. Hilgardia, 34, 191– 285.

Swirski, E. & Ragusa, S. (1976) Notes on predacious mites of Greece, with a description of five new species (Mesostigmata: Phytoseiidae). Phytoparasitica, 4, 101–122.

Takahashi, F. & Chant, D.A. (1993) Phylogenetic relationships in the genus Phytoseiulus Evans (Acari: Phytoseiidae). II. Taxonomic review. International Journal of Acarology, 19(1), 23–37.

Tixier, M.S., Guizou, S. & Kreiter, S. (2008) Morphological variation in the biological control agent Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Acari: Phytoseiidae). consequences for diagnostic reliability and synonymies. Invertebrate Systematics, 22, 453–469.

Tseng, Y.H. (1976) Systematics of the mite family Phytoseiidae from Taiwan, with a revised key to genera of the world (II). Journal of the Agricultural Association of China, New Series, 94, 85–128.

Tuttle, D.M. & Muma, M.H. (1973) Phytoseiidae (Acarina: Mesostigmata) inhabiting agricultural and other plants in Arizona. Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin, University of Arizona, Tucson, USA, 208, 55 pp.

Ueckermann, E.A. & Loots, G.C. (1988) The African species of the subgenera Anthoseius De Leon and Amblyseius Berlese (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Entomology Memoir, Department of Agriculture and Water Supply, Republic of South Africa, 73, 1–168.

Ueckermann, E.A., Zannou, I., Moraes, G.J. de, Oliveira, A., Hanna, R. & Yaninek, J.S. (2008) Phytoseiid mites of the tribe Typhlodromini (Acari: Phytoseiidae) from sub-Saharan Africa. Zootaxa, 1901, 1–122.

Van der Merwe, G.G. (1968) A taxonomic study of the family Phytoseiidae (Acari) in South Africa with contributions to the biology of two species. Entomology Memoirs, South Africa Department of Agricultural Technical Services, South Africa, 18, 1–198.

Wainstein, B.A. (1959) New subgenus and species of the genus Phytoseius Ribaga, 1902 (Phytoseiidae: Parasitiformes) [in Russian]. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 38, 1361–1365.

Wainstein, B.A. (1960) New species and subspecies of the genus Typhlodromus Scheuten (Parasitiformes, Phytoseiidae) of the USSR fauna [in Russian]. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 683–690.

Wainstein, B.A. (1962) Revision du genre Typhlodromus Scheuten, 1857 et systematique de la famille des Phytoseiidae (Berlese 1916) (Acarina: Parasitiformes). Acarologia, 4, 5–30.

Wainstein, B.A. (1969) Two new species of Phytoseius (Parasitiformes, Phytoseiidae) [in Russian]. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 48, 1741–1743.

Wainstein, B.A. (1973) Predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae (Parasitiformes) of the fauna of the Moldavian SSR [in Russian]. Fauna i Biologiya Nasekomykh Moldavii, Akademiya Nauk Moldavskoy SSR, Institut Zoologii, Moldova, 12, 176–180.

Wainstein, B.A. & Arutunjan, E.S. (1970) New species of predatory mites of the genera Amblyseius and Phytoseius (Parasitiformes: Phytoseiidae) [in Russian]. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 49, 1497–1504.

Wainstein, B.A. & Vartapetov, S.G. (1973) Predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae (Parasitiformes) of Adzharskaya ASSR [in Russian]. Akademiya Nauk Armyanskoy SSR, Biologicheskiy Zhurnal Armenii, Armenia, 26(2), 102–105.

Westerboer, I. & Bernhard, F. (1963) Die Familie Phytoseiidae Berlese 1916. In: Stammer, H. (Ed.), Beitrage zur Systematik und Okologie mitteleuropaischer Acarina. Band II, Mesostigmata I, Germany, pp. 451–791.

Zaher, M.A. (1986) Predaceous and non phytophagous mites (Nile Valley and Delta). Text. Survey and ecological studies on phytophagous, predaceous and soil mites in Egypt. PL 480 Programme USA, Project EG_ARS_30, Grant No. FG_EG_139, Egypt, 567 pp.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

An international journal of the Systematic and Applied Acarology Society

ISSN 1362-1971